Antibiotic Resistance Can Happens At Much Lower Concentration

Antibiotic resistance has become commonplace. However, a new study reveals that even traces of antibiotic concentrations can make bacteria become resistant to them. Antibiotic resistance found in the bacteria analyzed in the present study are developed with exposure to much lower concentrations that was thought earlier. There are different ways in which the research described resistance – which were either ‘selfish’ or ‘co-operative’. In case of selfish resistance, just the individual cell develops resistance to the antibiotic. However, in case of co-operative resistance, those cells surrounding the resistant cells are also benefited despite the fact that they too have developed the resistance or not. The scientists from the University of York analysed a plasmodium in the bacteria E. Coli. The plasmid named RK2 has a capacity to develop selfish resistance against tetracyclin and co-operative resistance against ampicillin. It must be noted that E Coli is infamous for the highly epidemic and infectious diarrhea.Like us on Facebook Pixabay Antibiotic Resistance: Why Half Of The Children Are At Risk? The findings showed that the selfish antibiotic resistance was developed at concentrations much lower i.e. at 100 times less than expected earlier. This concentration is usually normal in sewage system where these bacteria thrive and proliferate. Professor Michael Brockhurst, Dr Jamie Wood and PhD student Michael Bottery in the Departments of Biology and Mathematics at York conducted the research that has been published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. According to Dr Wood, “The most common way bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through horizontal gene transfer. Small bits of DNA, called plasmids, contain the resistance and can hop from one bacteria to another. Worse still, plasmids often contain more than one resistance.” Adding to the details, Michael Bottery said that antibiotic resistance is rampant and is being developed at various levels and forms. Highlighting their study, he said that what their research found was the resistances could be developed at a much lower concentrations that what scientists believed before. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance Can Happens At Much Lower Concentration

Antibiotic resistance has become commonplace. However, a new study reveals that even traces of antibiotic concentrations can make bacteria become resistant to them. Antibiotic resistance found in the bacteria analyzed in the present study are developed with exposure to much lower concentrations that was thought earlier. There are different ways in which the research described resistance – which were either ‘selfish’ or ‘co-operative’. In case of selfish resistance, just the individual cell develops resistance to the antibiotic. However, in case of co-operative resistance, those cells surrounding the resistant cells are also benefited despite the fact that they too have developed the resistance or not. The scientists from the University of York analysed a plasmodium in the bacteria E. Coli. The plasmid named RK2 has a capacity to develop selfish resistance against tetracyclin and co-operative resistance against ampicillin. It must be noted that E Coli is infamous for the highly epidemic and infectious diarrhea.Like us on Facebook Pixabay Antibiotic Resistance: Why Half Of The Children Are At Risk? The findings showed that the selfish antibiotic resistance was developed at concentrations much lower i.e. at 100 times less than expected earlier. This concentration is usually normal in sewage system where these bacteria thrive and proliferate. Professor Michael Brockhurst, Dr Jamie Wood and PhD student Michael Bottery in the Departments of Biology and Mathematics at York conducted the research that has been published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. According to Dr Wood, “The most common way bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through horizontal gene transfer. Small bits of DNA, called plasmids, contain the resistance and can hop from one bacteria to another. Worse still, plasmids often contain more than one resistance.” Adding to the details, Michael Bottery said that antibiotic resistance is rampant and is being developed at various levels and forms. Highlighting their study, he said that what their research found was the resistances could be developed at a much lower concentrations that what scientists believed before. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance Can Happens At Much Lower Concentration

Antibiotic resistance has become commonplace. However, a new study reveals that even traces of antibiotic concentrations can make bacteria become resistant to them. Antibiotic resistance found in the bacteria analyzed in the present study are developed with exposure to much lower concentrations that was thought earlier. There are different ways in which the research described resistance – which were either ‘selfish’ or ‘co-operative’. In case of selfish resistance, just the individual cell develops resistance to the antibiotic. However, in case of co-operative resistance, those cells surrounding the resistant cells are also benefited despite the fact that they too have developed the resistance or not. The scientists from the University of York analysed a plasmodium in the bacteria E. Coli. The plasmid named RK2 has a capacity to develop selfish resistance against tetracyclin and co-operative resistance against ampicillin. It must be noted that E Coli is infamous for the highly epidemic and infectious diarrhea.Like us on Facebook Pixabay Antibiotic Resistance: Why Half Of The Children Are At Risk? The findings showed that the selfish antibiotic resistance was developed at concentrations much lower i.e. at 100 times less than expected earlier. This concentration is usually normal in sewage system where these bacteria thrive and proliferate. Professor Michael Brockhurst, Dr Jamie Wood and PhD student Michael Bottery in the Departments of Biology and Mathematics at York conducted the research that has been published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. According to Dr Wood, “The most common way bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through horizontal gene transfer. Small bits of DNA, called plasmids, contain the resistance and can hop from one bacteria to another. Worse still, plasmids often contain more than one resistance.” Adding to the details, Michael Bottery said that antibiotic resistance is rampant and is being developed at various levels and forms. Highlighting their study, he said that what their research found was the resistances could be developed at a much lower concentrations that what scientists believed before. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance Can Happens At Much Lower Concentration

Antibiotic resistance has become commonplace. However, a new study reveals that even traces of antibiotic concentrations can make bacteria become resistant to them. Antibiotic resistance found in the bacteria analyzed in the present study are developed with exposure to much lower concentrations that was thought earlier. There are different ways in which the research described resistance – which were either ‘selfish’ or ‘co-operative’. In case of selfish resistance, just the individual cell develops resistance to the antibiotic. However, in case of co-operative resistance, those cells surrounding the resistant cells are also benefited despite the fact that they too have developed the resistance or not. The scientists from the University of York analysed a plasmodium in the bacteria E. Coli. The plasmid named RK2 has a capacity to develop selfish resistance against tetracyclin and co-operative resistance against ampicillin. It must be noted that E Coli is infamous for the highly epidemic and infectious diarrhea.Like us on Facebook Pixabay Antibiotic Resistance: Why Half Of The Children Are At Risk? The findings showed that the selfish antibiotic resistance was developed at concentrations much lower i.e. at 100 times less than expected earlier. This concentration is usually normal in sewage system where these bacteria thrive and proliferate. Professor Michael Brockhurst, Dr Jamie Wood and PhD student Michael Bottery in the Departments of Biology and Mathematics at York conducted the research that has been published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. According to Dr Wood, “The most common way bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through horizontal gene transfer. Small bits of DNA, called plasmids, contain the resistance and can hop from one bacteria to another. Worse still, plasmids often contain more than one resistance.” Adding to the details, Michael Bottery said that antibiotic resistance is rampant and is being developed at various levels and forms. Highlighting their study, he said that what their research found was the resistances could be developed at a much lower concentrations that what scientists believed before. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay

Antibiotic Resistance Can Happens At Much Lower Concentration

Antibiotic resistance has become commonplace. However, a new study reveals that even traces of antibiotic concentrations can make bacteria become resistant to them. Antibiotic resistance found in the bacteria analyzed in the present study are developed with exposure to much lower concentrations that was thought earlier. There are different ways in which the research described resistance – which were either ‘selfish’ or ‘co-operative’. In case of selfish resistance, just the individual cell develops resistance to the antibiotic. However, in case of co-operative resistance, those cells surrounding the resistant cells are also benefited despite the fact that they too have developed the resistance or not. The scientists from the University of York analysed a plasmodium in the bacteria E. Coli. The plasmid named RK2 has a capacity to develop selfish resistance against tetracyclin and co-operative resistance against ampicillin. It must be noted that E Coli is infamous for the highly epidemic and infectious diarrhea.Like us on Facebook Pixabay Antibiotic Resistance: Why Half Of The Children Are At Risk? The findings showed that the selfish antibiotic resistance was developed at concentrations much lower i.e. at 100 times less than expected earlier. This concentration is usually normal in sewage system where these bacteria thrive and proliferate. Professor Michael Brockhurst, Dr Jamie Wood and PhD student Michael Bottery in the Departments of Biology and Mathematics at York conducted the research that has been published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. According to Dr Wood, “The most common way bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through horizontal gene transfer. Small bits of DNA, called plasmids, contain the resistance and can hop from one bacteria to another. Worse still, plasmids often contain more than one resistance.” Adding to the details, Michael Bottery said that antibiotic resistance is rampant and is being developed at various levels and forms. Highlighting their study, he said that what their research found was the resistances could be developed at a much lower concentrations that what scientists believed before. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay

Easter Treats are Harmful for Pets, Experts Warn

Although we love our kids sprawl over hidden Easter eggs, chocolate bunnies, spring flowers, among others, these can fatally harmful to our furry best friends. Veterinarians are warning pet owners to take extra precaution and keep their pets in mind this weekend. Here are some points we need to consider before breaking into our baskets and go egg hunting. Vinay Patel | Health AimPets are Also At Risk From Secondhand Smoke Lilies are not good for cats. Dr. Mary Ellen Finley, BluePearl’s senior clinician in emergency medicine, reveals that even ingesting a small amount of lilies can result to renal failure. Sugar-free treats are to be avoided. Do not be tempted with products that promise to be sugar free as xylitol, a component found on sugar-free foods, is in fact more dangerous compared with chocolates to dogs. Fake Easter grass causes digestive problems. Ask holiday guests or hang a “Keep the door closed” sign to refrain pets from going outdoors. Keep goodies out of your pets’ reach as well. Do not be persuaded by those cute, puppy eyes and give your dogs chocolates. These can cause diarrhea, vomiting, increased heart rate and seizures. In addition, dogs cannot unwrap chocolates by themselves, eating the foil wrapping ends up blocking their intestines. If worse comes to worst and your pets managed to sniff some delicious Easter treats, MUVH veterinary doctors highly recommend you induce vomiting and rush your furry buddies to the vet soon.Like us on Facebook Meanwhile, Dr Anne Fawcett, a veterinary science lecturer at the University of Sydney and Sydney Hospitals Inner West’ vet, reveals that dog owners naturally want to make their pets happy and give them treats. “Just be selective about what you treat them with,” she reminded. “If you’re going to share human food, stick to things that are really low fat.” Experts suggest owners to refrain from giving their dogs foods containing alcohol and caffeine or caffeine products. Chocolates, cooked bones, grapes, sultanas, raisins and currants, nuts, particularly macadamia nuts; onions, garlic and chives; human painkillers; and xylitol or sugar substitutes are definitely a big no-no also. Photo: YouTube

Obesity Linked To Non-BPA Plastic Too

Obesity is not just a result of rich food and no exercise. Exposure to a chemical that is used in production of plastics is also responsible for formation of the fat cells, says a study. A chemical named bisphenol S, which is used as a replacement to the more commonly used bisphenol A (BPA) to make plastic stuff, is also an endocrine disruptor like BPA, say researchers. The well-known side effects of BPA, which have been proved through several studies, have made several consumers show inclination to buy products which are labelled as BPA-free. Obesity could be a result of BPA exposure as well The fact that BPA-free plastics contain bisphenol S or BPS has been considered as a safety symbol. However, the researchers of present study say that the replacement chemical also contains elements that interfere with hormones and can be harmful to health of people.Like us on Facebook “Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism,” said the study’s senior author, Ella Atlas, PhD, of Health Canada, the federal department responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve their health. Pixabay Reproductive Problems: Result Of An Exposure To Common Chemicals? As part of their study, the researchers used the undifferentiated human fat cells called the pre-adipocytes from the hip and thigh region of females. These cells were later exposed to BPS. A segregated section of cells were treated with dexamethasone, which is said to trigger a certain known rate of forming fat cells and lipids. The results showed clear effects of BPS on accumulation of lipids in these fat cells. Cells exposed to highest and lowest concentrations showed highest accumulation of lipids in cells than the ones exposed to moderates amounts. “Since BPS is one of the replacement chemicals used in consumer products that are marketed as BPA-free, it is important to examine whether BPS acts as an endocrine-disrupting chemical,” Atlas said. According to Atlas, their study showed that the two chemicals had similar effects on formation of fat cells, accumulation of lipids and gene expression. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay 

Obesity Linked To Non-BPA Plastic Too

Obesity is not just a result of rich food and no exercise. Exposure to a chemical that is used in production of plastics is also responsible for formation of the fat cells, says a study. A chemical named bisphenol S, which is used as a replacement to the more commonly used bisphenol A (BPA) to make plastic stuff, is also an endocrine disruptor like BPA, say researchers. The well-known side effects of BPA, which have been proved through several studies, have made several consumers show inclination to buy products which are labelled as BPA-free. Obesity could be a result of BPA exposure as well The fact that BPA-free plastics contain bisphenol S or BPS has been considered as a safety symbol. However, the researchers of present study say that the replacement chemical also contains elements that interfere with hormones and can be harmful to health of people.Like us on Facebook “Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism,” said the study’s senior author, Ella Atlas, PhD, of Health Canada, the federal department responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve their health. Pixabay Reproductive Problems: Result Of An Exposure To Common Chemicals? As part of their study, the researchers used the undifferentiated human fat cells called the pre-adipocytes from the hip and thigh region of females. These cells were later exposed to BPS. A segregated section of cells were treated with dexamethasone, which is said to trigger a certain known rate of forming fat cells and lipids. The results showed clear effects of BPS on accumulation of lipids in these fat cells. Cells exposed to highest and lowest concentrations showed highest accumulation of lipids in cells than the ones exposed to moderates amounts. “Since BPS is one of the replacement chemicals used in consumer products that are marketed as BPA-free, it is important to examine whether BPS acts as an endocrine-disrupting chemical,” Atlas said. According to Atlas, their study showed that the two chemicals had similar effects on formation of fat cells, accumulation of lipids and gene expression. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay 

Obesity Linked To Non-BPA Plastic Too

Obesity is not just a result of rich food and no exercise. Exposure to a chemical that is used in production of plastics is also responsible for formation of the fat cells, says a study. A chemical named bisphenol S, which is used as a replacement to the more commonly used bisphenol A (BPA) to make plastic stuff, is also an endocrine disruptor like BPA, say researchers. The well-known side effects of BPA, which have been proved through several studies, have made several consumers show inclination to buy products which are labelled as BPA-free. Obesity could be a result of BPA exposure as well The fact that BPA-free plastics contain bisphenol S or BPS has been considered as a safety symbol. However, the researchers of present study say that the replacement chemical also contains elements that interfere with hormones and can be harmful to health of people.Like us on Facebook “Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism,” said the study’s senior author, Ella Atlas, PhD, of Health Canada, the federal department responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve their health. Pixabay Reproductive Problems: Result Of An Exposure To Common Chemicals? As part of their study, the researchers used the undifferentiated human fat cells called the pre-adipocytes from the hip and thigh region of females. These cells were later exposed to BPS. A segregated section of cells were treated with dexamethasone, which is said to trigger a certain known rate of forming fat cells and lipids. The results showed clear effects of BPS on accumulation of lipids in these fat cells. Cells exposed to highest and lowest concentrations showed highest accumulation of lipids in cells than the ones exposed to moderates amounts. “Since BPS is one of the replacement chemicals used in consumer products that are marketed as BPA-free, it is important to examine whether BPS acts as an endocrine-disrupting chemical,” Atlas said. According to Atlas, their study showed that the two chemicals had similar effects on formation of fat cells, accumulation of lipids and gene expression. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay 

Obesity Linked To Non-BPA Plastic Too

Obesity is not just a result of rich food and no exercise. Exposure to a chemical that is used in production of plastics is also responsible for formation of the fat cells, says a study. A chemical named bisphenol S, which is used as a replacement to the more commonly used bisphenol A (BPA) to make plastic stuff, is also an endocrine disruptor like BPA, say researchers. The well-known side effects of BPA, which have been proved through several studies, have made several consumers show inclination to buy products which are labelled as BPA-free. Obesity could be a result of BPA exposure as well The fact that BPA-free plastics contain bisphenol S or BPS has been considered as a safety symbol. However, the researchers of present study say that the replacement chemical also contains elements that interfere with hormones and can be harmful to health of people.Like us on Facebook “Our research indicates BPS and BPA have comparable effects on fat cells and their metabolism,” said the study’s senior author, Ella Atlas, PhD, of Health Canada, the federal department responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve their health. Pixabay Reproductive Problems: Result Of An Exposure To Common Chemicals? As part of their study, the researchers used the undifferentiated human fat cells called the pre-adipocytes from the hip and thigh region of females. These cells were later exposed to BPS. A segregated section of cells were treated with dexamethasone, which is said to trigger a certain known rate of forming fat cells and lipids. The results showed clear effects of BPS on accumulation of lipids in these fat cells. Cells exposed to highest and lowest concentrations showed highest accumulation of lipids in cells than the ones exposed to moderates amounts. “Since BPS is one of the replacement chemicals used in consumer products that are marketed as BPA-free, it is important to examine whether BPS acts as an endocrine-disrupting chemical,” Atlas said. According to Atlas, their study showed that the two chemicals had similar effects on formation of fat cells, accumulation of lipids and gene expression. Photo: Pixabay, Pixabay